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Oscar 尼迈耶’s 法国共产党总部 Brings a Sensual 巴西ian Lilt to 巴黎

项目名 法国共产党总部
位置 巴黎
公司 Oscar 尼迈耶

In 1967, 巴西ian architect Oscar 尼迈耶 left his homeland for what would become almost two decades of self-imposed exile in France. Three years earlier, an American-backed military coup had overthrown 巴西’的政府。尽管因设计布拉斯的主要建筑物而闻名ília—壮观的现代内陆首都,经过三年半的艰苦规划和从头开始建造—Niemeyer, who had been a member of the 巴西ian Communist Party since 1945, found his work dried up under the implacably hostile right-wing dictatorship. So the displaced architect, who was twice refused entry to the U.S. because of his party affiliation, set up shop on the Champs-Élysées in 巴黎.

At the French Communist Party headquarters in 巴黎, completed 40 years ago by Oscar 尼迈耶, the Central Committee meets in a domed auditorium that’大部分在地下。 Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

One of 尼迈耶’s first major commissions there was a new 巴黎 headquarters for the French Communist Party, powerful enough at the time to win more than 20 percent of the national vote, though its fiercely pro-Soviet ideology would become increasingly unpopular and out of touch. The architect had abandoned his country but not his lifelong political principles: In a show of solidarity, 尼迈耶 worked on the project for free. But his Marxist-Leninist sympathies were not limitless. “On the politics, I’m with you,”他在1963年告诉莫斯科的听众。“但是您的架构太糟糕了。”法国共产党将获得可以想象到的斯大林主义建筑之一。  

礼堂的天花板高36英尺,衬有成千上万的光扩散铝带,这也有助于提高声学效果。 Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

尼迈耶(Niemeyer)在2012年逝世(105岁生日前几天)时,已被普遍认为是20世纪末’伟大的现代主义大师—一位无所不能的天才,他和其他杰出的同僚一样,都是最好的发明家。从他职业生涯的开始’30多岁,与里约热内卢的勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)在教育和卫生部总部合作—Brazil’第一座现代主义建筑—Niemeyer’他的铸混凝土结构将硬边平整的国际风格注入了他对波浪线和妖艳形式的热爱。“我被自由流动的感性曲线所吸引,”他在回忆录中写道。“我在我国的山脉,河流的蜿蜒曲折,大海的波涛和心爱的女人的身体上发现的曲线。”

四个标志性的Alta休闲椅围在茶几周围—all designed for the headquarters by 尼迈耶 and his daughter, Anna Maria—to create a lobby meeting area. Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

那么,难怪尼迈耶’samba早期的生物形态作品,具有膨胀的形状和流畅的轮廓,几乎总是与桑巴舞(桑巴舞,代表巴西的感性舞蹈节奏)相提并论。’色情文化。但是到了后期’50年代,当他设计胸罩时ília’优雅的魅力建筑,建筑师’s的风格与刚铸造的bossa nova感觉更接近:更凉爽,更爵士,更有节奏感。正是这种城市化的,平滑的拼合品质弥漫着尼迈耶为法国共产党人设计的复杂建筑。但是,与巴西首都不同,总部位于巴黎东北’工人阶级第19区的建设不是一朝一夕就建成的。尽管主楼于1971年落成,但出于经济原因,该计划’最壮观的元素—一个用于聚会的地下礼堂’s Central Committee—直到1980年才完成。

用来接待外国代表团的叶形地下室会议室像礼堂一样具有透光的天花板’s. Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

尼迈耶 went to great pains to preserve the openness of the sloping corner site, which faces the leafy oval of the Place du Colonel Fabien. He housed the party’的行政办公室位于高高的起伏的六层楼板中,位于小丘上,离街道很远。由Jean Prouv设计的不锈钢和有色玻璃幕墙进行护套é,这座弯曲的建筑坐落在较短的混凝土墩上,因此似乎漂浮在铺满的铺成的前庭上方,前庭向上膨胀几乎与之相遇。波浪形混凝土檐篷下的主入口出奇地谨慎:一个狭缝状的小孔通向一个巨大的地下大厅。进入上述办公室的主要途径是通过一个单独的流通塔,该塔位于大楼后方。

礼堂圆顶的顶部在党秘书处的前面,这是一个六层起伏的平板,其钢和玻璃幕墙由Jean Prouv设计é. Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

秘书处前面广场的唯一中断是 白色的混凝土圆顶,像一些太空时代的土墩一样神秘地从地球升起。实际上,它是the堡礼堂的顶部—令人眼花450乱的450个座位的圆形房间’s like a smaller, more futuristic version of the General Assembly Hall at the United Nations in New York, another headquarters that 尼迈耶 and Le Corbusier worked on. The interior of the 36-foot-high cupola is hung with several thousand white anodized-aluminum strips, which turn the entire ceiling into a glowing nebula of diffused light. Beneath it, curving rows of delegate seating face a low platform stage defined by a sweeping white concrete canopy that echoes the one over the main entry.

A circular sunken courtyard at the rear of the site brings light and greenery to the basement facilities. Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

进入礼堂’倾斜的墙壁,气闸式推拉门通向大堂及其毗邻的地下设施。其中包括休息室,展览区,书店,圆形下沉式庭院,并分布在三个较低的地下层,各种会议室(包括用于接待外国代表团的树叶状会议室),自助餐厅和电视演播室。光滑的曲线比比皆是,但是混凝土浇铸的墙壁和其他建筑元素具有形成它们的木板的质感,为室内装饰提供了极具吸引力的手工品质,使它们免于显得过于光滑或易于电影拍摄。 

板形混凝土墙和皮革软垫宴会为地下室休息室增添了质感。 Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

那个天堂’t stopped the complex from becoming a favorite location for art directors and fashion designers who have staged unapologetically capitalistic photo shoots and couture shows in and around it. 尼迈耶 was certainly aware that his building, which has been a listed monument since 2007, could serve such bourgeois ends. “架构不会改变任何东西,”他说了不止一次。“It’总是站在富人一边。” The important thing was to believe that beautiful buildings make life better for everyone, something even Georges Pompidou, the right-wing French president at the time, seemed to acknowledge when he said that 尼迈耶’s感性地标“是那些社团所做的唯一一件好事。” 

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A curving concrete canopy defines the low platform stage. Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。
Access to the auditorium is via pneumatically controlled sliding doors. Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。
主入口在一个小的混凝土顶棚下包括一个缝隙状的孔。 摄影由纽约艺术家权利协会(ARS)提供,2019年/圣保罗AUTVIS。
The vast subterranean lobby includes an exhibition space. Maxime Galati和Laura Fantacuzzi /《居住在里面》摄影。

>从2019年11月号中查看更多 室内设计

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